Conference: Fissile Material Treaty – Possibility & Prospects

Three Day International Inaugural Conference 2011

Organized by

South Asian Strategic Stability Institute (SASSI)

20-22 March 2011

SASSI organized a Three Day International Inaugural Conference 2011 titled “Fissile Material Treaty: Possibility and Prospects” on 20-22nd March 2011 at the Islamabad Serena Hotel.

Dr. Maria Sultan, Director General South Asian Strategic Stability Institute (SASSI) in her welcome remarks stated “The Conference on Disarmament (CD), the sole United Nations body mandated to negotiate arms control and disarmament treaties, is currently facing a dead lock in negotiations related to the banning of fissile material. The reasons for this dead lock needs to be analyzed in a bigger picture and cannot be seen in narrow terms of any state blocking the consensus.”

The key note addresses was delivered by Mr. Rehman Malik, Federal Interior Minister of Pakistan who stated “He stated that the word ‘discrimination’ is hated by the entire world. Pakistan in recent years has been facing discrimination by some major powers. Now, if some states emphasize on Pakistan to stop producing fissile materials, the world is recognizing its status as a Nuclear Weapon State (NWS).” He expressed that, “If we know how to produce nuclear weapons, we also know to protect them. Pakistan is a peaceful nuclear power and its programme is in safe hands”.

Air Chief Marshal Rao Qamar Suleman, Chief of Air Staff Force also delivered the key note address and stated “He said that Pakistani nuclear arsenal is in safe hands and its command and control system is one of the world’s best. Pakistan wants peace in the region and is playing vital role in this regard”. ACM Suleman said “Pakistanis following a policy of peaceful co-existence in the region but at the same time it cannot remain oblivious to developments taking place in South Asia.”

Dr. Javaid R. Laghari, Chairman Higher Education Commission (HEC), Pakistan also participated in the workshop as a keynote speaker and stated “ The occurrence  of  almost  50  research  publications over the  last  six years  and the  holding of almost over  36  international   workshops and  seminars and  58  in house and  bilateral  meetings  is reasons  for the  HEC to  be  rightly  proud  of this partnership  and the faith  in ventures  which  are   both  public  and  private; setting  new  standards  and  life   in the   much wanted  research  application in Pakistan.” He highlighted that “The Conference would deliberate on the FMT, and justifies the need for consensus to start negotiations, which are central to international non-proliferation and arms control and disarmament measures and keeping the effectiveness of the Conference on Disarmament (CD) as the custodian of the multi-lateralism in international arms control negotiations.”

Mr. Nasir Naveed Dogar (Research Fellow SASSI) stated “P-5 along with India are of the view that the treaty should only ban the future production of fissile material for nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices while majority of the G-21 states along with Pakistan are in favour of a treaty which ban the future production and pre-existing stocks of fissile material.”

Shumaila Ishaque Chaudhry (Research Fellow SASSI) stated “Pakistanis not blocking the negotiations it is trying to ensure that negotiations are reflective of the original mandate of the treaty that is general and complete nuclear disarmament.Pakistan’s argument is that if CD wants to strengthen the disarmament and non-proliferation measures it should also focus on other agenda items.”

Adil Sultan (Deputy Director Arms Control & Disarmament Affairs SPD) said that “unfortunately undue pressure is being put on Pakistan and some states are blaming Pakistan for blocking progress on FMT.Pakistanis not alone in its position on FMT many other states are in favor ofPakistan’s stance.”

Tahir Nazir (Research Fellow SASSI) stated that “balance of commitment from nuclear weapons states to non nuclear weapon states have not been fulfilled, because Negative Security Assurance is just an assurance but not legally binding international treaty.”

Professor Dr. Zafar Nawaz Jaspal (Advisor on Nuclear Affairs SASSI) stated that “There is corporate interest and Military Industrial Complex (MIC) which is moving towards world domination in space technology on behalf of the global corporate culture.”

Ms. Sajida Mansoor (Research Fellow SASSI) stated “the efforts regarding preserving space for peaceful uses dates back to Late 1950’s and the real source of concern of states is the lack of a substantive process to prevent the weaponization of space and trade of dual use high tech space technologies on the basis of exceptionalism.”

Mr. Li Chang-HE (Vice President, China Arms Control and Disarmament Association CACDA, China) stated “China joined consensus for the adoption of 48/75 L Resolution of United Nations General Assembly and voted for the relevant resolutions in UNGA, in support of the establishment of Ad-Hoc Committee to negotiate the FMCT on the basis of the mandate contained in the “Shannon Report” with an expectation that the treaty would be conducive to nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear disarmament..”

Ms. Rida Zeenat (Research Fellow SASSI) stated “Although BMD is defensive technology, highly expensive and technologically uncertain but its possession fortifies a state to adopt offensive policies. India has moved from deterrence to pre-emption compelling states to further improve their response option which destabilizes the strategic equation of the entire region and this makes FMCT out of question forPakistan.”

Dr. Pervaiz Iqbal Cheema (Dean Faculty of Contemporary Studies National Defence University) stated that “the stockpile issue was addressed; the path of FMT would be easy as Pakistan could not then resist it. Since his presentation was on ‘Rise of India and the Non-Proliferation Regime”

Dr. Zafar Iqbal Cheema (Head of Department of Nuclear and Strategic Studies NDU) mandated that “The concept of deterrence stability in South Asiais complex and deterrence stability may be understood to include a number of mutually overlapping core ideas. The nuclear stability, deterrence stability, arms race stability, escalation control stability and crisis stability are other core ideas related to deterrence stability.”

Dr. Anton Khlopkov (Director, Center for Energy and Security Studies (CENESS)Russia) stated that the “Conference on Disarmament should be the first choice to discuss and develop this treaty. It should also be a verifiable treaty.”

Ambassador Ali Sarwar Naqvi, Former Advisor to Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) on International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) matters/ Associate Fellow SASSI stated that “Pakistan’s security is not status motivated but its security concerns and strategic dynamic of the region has compelled Pakistan to rely heavily on the nuclear weapons.”

Mr. Masood Ur Rehman Khattak (Research Fellow SASSI) said that “Deterrence inSouth Asia is delicate because of rapid militarization and operationalization of CSD. This Doctrine has the potential not only to operationalize Indian military doctrine on the basis of pre-emption but can also trigger a nuclear conflict. India practiced ten exercises from 2004-2010 and they practice all of the components of CSD.”

Mr. Sultan M. HAli (Ex- Air Force officer Anchor PTV) talked about the comparative analysis of Pakistan Air Force (PAF) Indian Air Force (IAF) capabilities.

Mr. Zawar Abidi (Senior Research Fellow, SASSI) highlighted that the “devastating effects of the nuclear technology in the WWII, which brought an end to the war, made the developed world in general and the US in particular realize that nuclear technology could be used as a source of much required energy for the industrial and economical development of the human being around the globe and lot of revenue could be generated.”

Ms. Anum Fayyaz (Research Fellow, SASSI) elaborated the conceptual framework of Nuclear Supplier Group (NSG) that it is a nuclear cartel, established in 1975 in response to 1974 Indian nuclear explosion.

Dr. Zafar ullah Koreshi (Dean Faculty of Engineering, Air University, Islamabad) stated “Objectives of projected treaty as it would be beneficial to all humanity. He emphasized on peaceful uses of nuclear energy by stipulating that we all want energy free of fossil-fuels, pollution of nuclear waste and radiation issues.”

Mr. Nasir Hafeez (Lecturer National Defense University) Capping on development of nuclear weapons. He stated that the cap on development of nuclear weapons is a natural process and not a treaty based necessity and FMCT in its current form is a destabilizing factor in regional security environment.

Ms. Nimrah Safdar (Research Fellow SASSI) stated that the US is garbing unilateralism in the shape of multi-lateralism and compared the Bush administration policies on nuclear disarmament with Obama administration.

Mark Hibbs (Senior Associate, Nuclear Policy Program, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, USA) said that “There is increasing divergence of rising, global-looking India and regionally focused Pakistan with a comparatively weaker state.”

Ambassador Shaukat Umer (Former Permanent Representative of Pakistan United Nations (UN), Geneva) stated that “Pakistan is the last entrant into the nuclear program. There are enormous stockpiles unverifiable that can be diverted at disposal of the US and Russia. There is an inherent lack of equality. Pakistan is not the only country which is delaying the negotiations of CD agenda.”

Prof. Maurizio Martellini (Secretary General Landau, Network- Centro Volta) stated that “Pakistan is right that there is an asymmetry in the region and he emphasized that Pakistan’s supreme national interests should not be jeopardized by the proposed treaty. He concluded that the Conference on Disarmament (CD) cannot work in vacuum.”

Brig. (R) Naeem Salik, Associate Fellow, South Asian Strategic Stability Institute (SASSI) said “Indian pursuit of Ballistic Missile Defence (BMD) system poses challenges on Pakistan’s security calculus. He explained that Pakistan cannot draw the line at credible minimum deterrence.”

Mansoor Ahmed (Department of Defence and Strategic Studies, Quaid-e-Azam University) said “In the wake of the commissioning of KANUPP in 1972, a long term nuclear plan was approved to develop the nuclear fuel cycle and a nuclear power program through international cooperation.”

Dr. Malfrid B Hegghammer (Fellow Norwegian Institute for Defense Studies, Norway) was of the view that “South Asia is a home of two nuclearised countries surrounded by non-nuclear weapons states like, Afghanistan and other neighbouring small states. These developments will further promote and encourage these states to develop their own nuclear weapons for security measures.”

Mr. Muhammad Malick (Resident Editor, The News/Senior Journalist) was of the view that “the Indo-US nuclear deal seriously undermines global non-proliferation agenda. There is a growing need to achieve nuclear disarmament on global level and not on the interests of the major powers, which is guiding a policy of discrimination.”

Air Commodore Khalid Banuri (Director Arms Control & Disarmament Affairs (ACDA), Strategic Plans Division (SPD) “Pakistanhas expressed serious concern over policies and trends of selectivity, exceptionalism and discrimination relating to strategic export control regimes. Such policies, detrimental as they are to international peace and security, undermine the credibility of the existing non-proliferation regime and are inconsistent with the national laws and international obligations.”

Larry Macfaul (Senior Researcher, Verification Research Training and Information Centre (VERTIC) stated that “the Shannon Mandate proposed a treaty to ban the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices and that should be non-discriminatory multilateral and internationally and effectively verifiable.”

Mr. Hamayoun Khan (Lecturer, National Defense University) said that “Pakistanis in support of FMT which deals with all the state parties equally and gives sense of security to all the state parties. Any treaty which will hinder security of Pakistan will not be able to serve its purpose. Conference on Disarmament (CD) is the most appropriate forum to negotiate FMT and other arms control and disarmament issues.”

Mr. Saeed Khan (Research Fellow SASSI) said that “Pakistanon board the U.S.needs to focus on addressing Pakistan’s strategic concerns and the slow degradation of deterrence vis-à-visIndia. Any biased and discriminatory policies towards India and Pakistan should be avoided which disturb the strategic stability in South Asia.”